Shungit — Precambrian rock , which occupies the composition and characteristics intermediate between anthracite and graphite. There are varieties of shungita black, dark gray and brown.
Shungit formed from organic sediments — sapropel . These organic deposits covered up on top of all the new layers of gradually compacted , dehydrated and plunged into the depths of the earth. Under the influence of compression and heat was a slow process of metamorphism . This process was formed in the mineral matrix atomized amorphous carbon as is typical for shungita globules.
First anecdotal descriptions of rock ‘black Olonetskaya earth » were made N.Ya. Ozeretskovym in 1792 and NK Komarov in 1848.
In 1877, AA foreigners identified as a new breed of extreme term in a number of natural non-crystalline carbon , non- coal and named — shungite by name Zaonezhskoe Shunga village , where the breed was first discovered and operated tunnel .
In the years 1928-1937 based on the established public trust » Shungit » shungite study was carried out as expected analogues of combustible coal led to the first structural studies .
Pure shungite occurs rarely in nature , mostly in the form of fine , up to 30 cm wide streaks . Most often it is present as an impurity in schungite shales and dolomites spread throughout the Onega — from Girvas TOLVUYA in the west to the east and Shunga .
The main reserves are located in the shungites Zaonezhskoe Peninsula and around the northern tip of Lake Onega , industrial their value is determined by the most complete fields for » Shungskoe «, » Maksovo «, » Zazhogin » and » Nigozerskoe » and » Myagrozerskoe .» Forecast resources in all fields , about 1 billion tons .
To date, explored » Koksuy field » in Kazakhstan with a proven reserve of 49 million tons.
Density — 2,25-2,84 g/cm3 Porosity — 0.5-5 % compressive strength 100-276 MPa modulus of elasticity (E) — 0.31 * 105 MPa. Electrically conductive , electrical — (1-3) × 103 S / m , thermal conductivity — 3.8 W / m · K. Average thermal expansion coefficient in a temperature range from +20 to +600 ° C — 12 × 10-6 K- 1. The calorific value of 7500 kcal / kg.
The breed has a sorption and catalytic properties.
SHUNGIT substance is not just amorphous carbon and is a mixture of various carbon allotropes , whose small grid connected amorphous carbon.
There are two varieties:
1) A brilliant variation
C = 94%
O, N = 1,9%
H = 0,8%
Ash = 2.2%
2) The matte -gray variation
C = 64 %
O, N = 3,5%
H = 6,7%
Ash = 3.3%
Chemical composition shungita used as a sorbent
1. Alumina Al2O3
2. iron oxide (III) Fe2O3
3. Iron oxide (II) FeO
4. K2O potassium oxide
5. Calcium oxide CaO
6. Silica SiO2
7. Magnesium oxide MgO
8. manganese oxide MnO
9. Sodium oxide Na2O
10. Titanium dioxide TiO2
11. phosphorus oxide P2O3
12. Barium Ba
13. Boron B
14. Vanadium V
15. Cobalt Co
16. Copper Cu
18. As Arsenic
19. Nickel Ni
20. Lead Pb
21. Sulfur S
22. Strontium Sr
23. Carbon C
24. Chromium Cr
25. Zinc Zn
26. Water H2O
27. Water H2O
In the ash shungita ( as with all natural coal and bitumen -containing impurities) contained vanadium , nickel , molybdenum , copper , etc. Due to the relative ease of production of various carbon allotropes , shungite categorized as a promising material for the development of nanotechnology and is the object of study in the Institute of Nanotechnology .
Shungit comprises a solid carbon , and substantial amounts of silica , both of these components in it are very reactive forms. In this regard, it can be used as a reductant metal and — simultaneously — as SiO2- containing flux and a silicon source (e.g., the production of pig iron, ferrochromium ferrosilicochrome or silicon carbide )
Another application — building . Polished slabs pitch- black in color with a few white streaks , no dimming over time , adorn the interiors of St. Isaac’s and Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg and Moscow metro station . In modern construction industry shungite also used to produce shungizita — easy substitute for concrete.
Crushed shungizit has sufficient mechanical strength filter media , chemically stable , does not contaminate a filtered water therethrough and thereby — suitable for filter media . Currently MP » Petrozavodskvodokanal » uses crushed shungizit at water treatment plants as feed rate filters based on a permit issued by the Ministry of Health of the USSR № 121-5/873-6 per year from 30/10/81 .
This property is unique shungita : for such purpose ( nozzle fixing microorganisms forming active yl ) use expanded clay , plastic materials, gravel and other materials are available and cheap , including in the region. Sorption characteristics shungita are no different from other coal downloads , used to purify drinking water from chlorine residues .
Using schungite in life as a filter material in the filter opening promotes the growth of bacteria in the water , as loaded into aeration tanks and a denitrifier .
Products , pastas and filters based on shungita attributed to alleged curative effects .
Shungizit — artificial porous material obtained by sintering schungite rocks. Shungizit used as a lightweight aggregate ( shungizitobeton ) and as an insulating filling .